In 2017, the iconic American Birkebeiner ('the Birkie') cross-country ski race was canceled due to poor snow conditions. This survey-based study explored the substitution interests of cross-country skiers registered in a large race event.
When it is impossible to participate in a chosen sport at a given time or place, participants have the following substitution options: substitute another sport (e.g. hike instead of ski), substitute another location (e.g. ski elsewhere), or substitute another time (e.g. ski tomorrow)
In the case of the Birkie, skiers were more interested in moving the event to a different location or changing the route of the course, than they were in changing activities. This demonstrates a high degree of commitment to the activity (skiing). Distance traveled to the event had no bearing on substitution interests.
CITE: Orr, M. & Schneider, I. (2018). Substitution interests among active sport tourists: the case of a cross-country ski event. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 22(4), 315-332.