In this article, Howe engages in the debate of whether all sports are games and all games are contests. The latter argument is particularly controversial, as it implies that individuals engage in games in order to determine who is most skillful. Howe challenges these assumptions using the concept of friluftsliv, “an approach to nature-oriented activity in which the experience of the environment and self-in-environment is paramount” (p. 11), while cautioning readers of the inherent consequences of defining sport wholly as a pursuit of excellence (though still acknowledging this pursuit of excellence may add value in some cases).
Cite: Howe, L.A. (2019). Not everything is a contest: sport, nature sport, and friluftsliv, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport.