This 1977 review study explored the influence of weather on sport, in both indoor and outdoor environments. Specifically, Thornes explored the ways weather influenced sport in terms of participant (athlete) comfort, the quality of spectator comfort, the quality of playing surfaces, and so on. Thornes introduces the notion of weather advantages, which are when athletes or competitions enjoy better or more competitive weather conditions than others. For instance, if there is a golf tournament that has beautiful weather in the morning, and windy weather in the afternoon, the golfers who tee off early will have an advantage over those who tee off later in the day. Another key concept that is introduced is specialized weather sports, which are activities with heavy reliance on a very particular weather condition. Examples include skiing (snow, cold), surfing (wind, no storms), etc.
CITE: Thornes, J.E. (1977). The effect of weather on sport. Weather, 32(7), 258-268.