When a person cannot participate in their preferred sport at their preferred place and time, for whatever reason, they have substitution options:
- the person can substitute the sport (e.g. go hiking instead of skiing),
- substitute time (e.g. ski on another day),
- or substitute place (e.g. ski somewhere else).
Given that cross-country skiing depends on snow conditions, the warming climate may put pressure on skiers to begin adapting.
In this survey study of 275 Austrians and 655 Fins, researchers explored how culture influences people's preferences in climate adaptation options. The study considered five dimensions of Hofstede's model of cultural differences, which includes: the nature of people, the mode of activity, relationship to external environment, relationship to other people, and time (short-term/long-term).
The Finnish cluster was far more interested in indoor activities and additional four-season outdoor activities. The Austrian cluster has a higher preference for cultural events.
CITE: Landauer, M., Haider, W., & Probstl-Haider, U. (2013). The influence of culture on climate change adaptation strategies: preferences of cross-country skiers in Austria and Finland. Journal of Travel Research, 51(1), 96-110.