The Weather Dependency Framework (2017)

Delphi method study with 27 experts that identified the Weather Dependency Framework items. The purpose was to create a mechanism for understanding the multi-dimensional variables that influence the weather dependency of outdoor recreation activities.

Defines weather dependency as "the degree to which a specific outdoor recreation activity is reliant on particular weather and resulting conditions".


A framework using 32 variables of weather dependency was developed, clustered into 7 overarching factors: site characteristics, trip characteristics, resource characteristics, personal characteristics, season, experiences with weather, weather conditions.

CITE: Verbos, R., & Brownlee, M. (2017). The Weather Dependency Framework (WDF): A tool for assessing the weather dependency of outdoor recreation activities. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism., 18, 88-99.

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