This paper is a systematic review of existing studies on tourism and climate change from a demand perspective.
Key points include: - Winter tourism has been a focal point for tourism and climate change research. We can expect to see an increase in visitation to winter destinations under moderate warming conditions but decrease in visitation under extreme heat conditions. - Some research has been done on reef degradation and loss on dive tourism destinations (because reef health is regarded as important to the experience and satisfaction of dive tourists. - Research on beach tourism shows tourists would be unwilling to return in scenarios where beaches 'largely disappear'. Perceptions of beach vulnerability varied among the studies conducted in different parts of the world. Pollution of water bodies has negatively affected tourist visitation at certain destinations including Hawaii and the Gulf of Mexico. - Aviation sector mitigation policies have little effect on tourism demand. Awareness of the energy intensity of travel (and waste associated with travel) has little effect on travel behavior. - It is likely that reductions in global or regional GDP resulting from climate change would reduce discretionary wealth available for tourism and have negative repercussions for anticipated future growth in tourism demand. - Perceptions of climate change are different between different age, culture and other socio-demographic variables. - Public perceptions of climate change can be ill-informed and highly polarized - There is a lack of longitudinal research in assessing long-term enviro changes on tourist awareness, satisfaction, participation in activities, and destination choice.
CITE: Gossling, S., Scott, D., Hall, C., Ceron, J., & Dubois, G. (2012). Consumer behavior and demand responses to climate change. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(1), 36-58.