Major stakeholders in the environmental management of the Olympic Games include: the IOC, organizing committees (OCOGs), local governments, environmental organizations, and sponsors. The IOC employs a variety of coercive, frameworking, and voluntarism policies to encourage participation in environmental management by these stakeholders along with the Host City Contract. However, many of these governance policies have few true enforcement mechanisms in place.
CITE: Ross, W. J., Leokpey, B., & Mercado, H. U. (2018 - online). Governance of Olympic environmental stakeholders. Journal of Global Sport Management.