This study developed an index of climate vulnerability (including exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity) of cross-country skiiers at the individual scale.
Indicators: - Exposure: current annual number of snow days, change in temperature, precipitation in form of snow, duration of snow cover.
- Sensitivity: behavioral reactions, preferences, and level of satisfaction of skiers in response to changes in the hypothetical future skiing conditions
- Adaptive capacity: awareness, ability (ability to adapt to changed conditions can be indicated by financial resources, technical capacity, availability of equipment, skills), and action (current or expected behavior of individuals).
Data was pulled from the national outdoor recreation demand and supply inventory conducted in Finland during 2009-2010. The follow-up survey was conducted in the spring of 2010 (n = 480) of whom 60% were xc skiers.
CITE: Landauer, M., Sievänen, T., & Neuvonen, M. (2015). Indicators of climate change vulnerability for winter recreation activities: a case of cross-country skiing in Finland. Leisure/Loisir, 39(3-4), 403-440.