This study examined the value-action gap, that is- the gap between people's attitudes and their behaviors, in the context of recycling at baseball games.
A pilot study was first conducted with university students to refine the survey instrument, then the survey was administered to 129 attendees at a youth baseball tournament. Participants completed a questionnaire that asked them to provide their demographic information and to respond to items measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs.
The results show that people’s recycling intentions were positively associated with: 1) having previously engaged in recycling, 2) perceiving they had the time to recycle, 3) sensing other families at the tournament want them to recycle, and 4) having significant others in their lives who also recycle (i.e., subjective norms).
CITE: McCullough, B.P. & Cunningham, G.B. (2011). Recycling intentions among youth baseball spectators. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 10(1/2), 104-120