A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)-based approach was used to determine the carbon footprint of the University of British Columbia athletics program.
UBC spectators had a smaller footprint than teams on a per person basis but a larger overall carbon footprint.
Although only 4% of the spectators travelled by air, this constituted 52% of total spectator impact.
The study concludes the biggest opportunities for footprint reductions by spectators and teams alike are strategies that (a) reduce long-distance air travel, (b) increase vehicle occupancy rates, and (c) encourage low-emission travel mode choices.
CITE: Dolf, M., & Teehan, P. (2015). Reducing the carbon footprint of spectator and team travel at the University of British Columbia's varsity sports events. Sport Management Review, 18(2), 244-255.